Economic Feasibility of Integrating Solar Photovoltaic Distributed Generation With Nigerian Power System

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES)          
  
© 2020 by IJRES Journal
Volume-7 Issue-3
Year of Publication : 2020
Authors : John Nweke, Arthur Ekwue, Emenike Ejiogu
  10.14445/23497157/IJRES-V7I3P113

MLA 

MLA Style: John Nweke, Arthur Ekwue, Emenike Ejiogu  "Economic Feasibility of Integrating Solar Photovoltaic Distributed Generation With Nigerian Power System" International Journal of Recent Engineering Science 7.3(2020):61-71. 

APA Style: John Nweke, Arthur Ekwue, Emenike Ejiogu. Economic Feasibility of Integrating Solar Photovoltaic Distributed Generation With Nigerian Power System International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, 7(3),61-71.

Abstract
The recent trend of Nigeria’s power system connection with renewable energy resources cannot be feasible without assessing the economic viability of the investment. This depends on the technical evaluation and economic feasibility of connecting distributed generation (DG) with the grid. The Nigeria power system is not yet connected with solar photovoltaic (SPV) renewable energy, and hence, this paper evaluates the economic feasibility of solar integration with the Nigerian grid. The task depends on technical issues via the optimal size and location of the distributed generation and global irradiation level of the renewable energy sourced electricity. A validated sensitivity-based method of optimization with the developed algorithm to obtain optimal size and location of DG for Nigeria grid connection carried out using Power System Software for Engineering (PSS/E). A generic method using financial sensitivity appraisal tools: present value (NPV), energy payback time (EPBT), and Levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) were used to evaluate the economic feasibility. The results of the analysis proved economically feasible in all ramifications for a 20-year lifetime with an optimal size of 1.0 MW of solar DG with a saving energy loss of 3.4 million dollars.

Reference
[1] M. S Okundamiya and O, Omorogiuwa, “Viability of a Photovoltaic Diesel Battery Hybrid Power System in Nigeria”, Iranica Journal of Energy and Environment, 6(1),2015, 5- 12.
[2] J. O. Oji, N. Idusuyi, T. O. Aliu, M O. Petinrin, O A. Odejobi, and A. R.Adetunji, “Utilization of Solar Energy for Power Generation in Nigeria,” International Journal of Energy Engineering, 2(2), 2012,54-59.
[3] E J, Bala, J O Ojosu, and. I H. Umar, “Government Policies and Programmes on the Development of Solar PV Sub-sector in Nigeria”, Nigeria Journal of Renewable Energy, 8(1), 2000,1-6.
[4] U B Akuru, I E, Onukwube, O I Okoro, and E S. Obe, “Towards 100% Renewable Energy in Nigeria”, Sustainable Energy Reviews,71, 2017, 943 – 953.
[5] M F, Akorede, O. Ibrahim, S A, Amuda, A. O Otuoze, and B J. Olufeagba, “Current Status and Outlook of Renewable Energy Development in Nigeria”, Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), 36(1), 2017, 196 – 212.
[6] P. C Carolina, B. S Filipe, and L., Carlo, “An Assessment of the Regional potential for Solar Power Generation in EU-28”, Energy Policy, 88, 2016, 86–9
[7] T R, Ayodele, A. S. O, Ogunjuyigbe, and O. O. kinola, “Optimal Location, Sizing, and Appropriate Technology Selection of Distributed Generators for Minimizing Power Loss Using Genetic Algorithm”, Journal of Renewable Energy, 2015, 1 -10
[8] P. Oshevire, T. Oladimeji, and S. Onohaebi, “Smart Grid Technology and Its Possible Applications to the Nigeria 330 kV Power System”, Smart grid and Renewable Energy, 4, 2013, 391-397.
[9] C G, Ozoegwu, C.A Mgbemene, and P.A. Ozor, “The status of solar energy integration and policy in Nigeria,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 2017, 457-471.
[10] V E Nnaemeka and E E. Nebedum, “Policies Enhancing Renewable Energy Development and Implications for Nigeria”, Sustainable Energy Review,4 (1), 2016, 1- 16.
[11] J. N. Nweke, A. O Ekwue, and E. C, Ejiogu, “Optimal Location of Distributed Generation on the Nigerian Power System”, Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), (35)2, 2016,398 – 403
[12] S O. Olayinka, S A. Muyiwa, M O. Olanrewaju., and O. F. Richard, “Solar energy applications and development in Nigeria Drivers and barriers”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, 32, 2004. 294 – 30.
[13] N. V. Emodi and D Y. Samson, “Integrating Renewable Energy and Smart Grid Technology into the Nigerian Electricity Grid System”, Smart Grid and Renewable Energy, 5, 2014,220-238. Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/sgre.2014.59021
[14] E. Christie, A. Ademola, and A. Olayinka, “The Daunting Challenges of the Nigerian Electricity Supply Industry”, Journal of Energy Technologies and Policy, (5).9, 2015, 25 – 32.
[15] A M. Abdullahi, V W. Asan, M S, Firdaus, A M, Ibrahim, B. M, Abu, and M. Y. Norhidayah, “An Assessment of Renewable Energy Readiness in Africa: A case study of Nigeria and Cameroon”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,51, 2015, 775 – 784.
[16] S Mohamed and J.O. Petrin, “Renewable Energy potentials in Nigeria: Meeting rural energy needs”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,29, 2014, 72 -84.
[17] I A. Fidelis, N N, Bertrand, S O Olayinka, and A O. Sunday, “Energy Resource Structure and On-Going Sustainable Development Policy in Nigeria: A Review”, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 5, 2014, 1 – 16.
[18] Clean Technology Fund Investment Plan for Nigeria Update Note. Available online at: http//www.google.com.ng/search?q=Technology+Fund+Investmen [accessed 23:07:2019].
[19] S. Boljevic, “Maximizing Penetration Distributed Generation in Existing Urban Distribution Network”, Ph.D. thesis, Dublin Institute of Technology, 2015, 44 – 100.
[20] R S, Yogendra, S. R Daka, and R G. Kesava, “Optimal Siting and Sizing of Solar Power Sources in Interconnection Grid System”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, (9)12, 2016, 1-9.
[21] N. M. Duong Quoc Hung, and l R C. Bansa, “Analytical Expressions for DG Allocation in Primary Distribution Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, (25)3, 2010, 814-820.
[22] M. Abbagana, G. A Bakare, and I. Mustapha, “Optimal placement and sizing of Distributed Generator in a Power Distribution system using Differential Evolution”, International Journal of Research in Engineering, (2)4, 2001, 26-42.
[23] N. Mohan, T. Ananthapadmanabha and A D Kulkarni, “A Weighted Multi-Objective Index Based on Optimal Distributed Generation Planning in Distribution System”, ELSEVIER Science Direct Procedia Technology, 21, 2015, 279 – 286.
[24] JVB Subramanyam and C. Radhakrishna, “Distributed Generation Placement and Sizing in Unbalanced Radial Distribution System”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, (3)4, 2009,753 – 760.
[25] T. K. A. Rahman, S. R. A. Rahim and I. Musirin, “Implementation of Embedded Generator for Voltage Regulation and Loss Minimization in Distribution System”, International Journal of Engineering and Technology, (1)1, 2004, 1 –12.
[26] P. Mehta, P. Bhatt, and V. Pandya, Optimal Selection of Distributed Generating Units and its Placement for Voltage Stability Enhancement and Energy Loss Minimization, Ain Shams Engineering Journal, (10)9, 2015, 1 – 15.
[27] A. O. Ekwue, “Economic Evaluation of the Benefits of Distributed Generation on Distribution Network”, International Conference on Electrical Power Engineering (ICEPENG), University of Nigeria Nsukka, 2015, 126 – 133.
[28] A O. Ekwue, “Economic Evaluation of the Benefits of Distributed Generation on Distribution Networks based on NPV and BlackScholes Techniques”, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nigeria, Nsukka International Conference on Engineering and Technology as tools for sustainable economic and industrial growth in the 21st century, 2018, 1-10.
[29] D. M. Suzi and K. O. Gül, Energy and Cost Analyses of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Micro-generation Systems for Different Climate Zones of Turkey”, Energy and Power Engineering (8)3, 2016, 117 – 129.
[30] International Renewable Energy (IRENA), Wind Power Renewable Energy Technologies: Cost Analysis Series, (1)5, 2012, 42 -52.
[31] Saule B. and Glenn P. J., “On-Grid Solar PV versus Diesel Electricity Generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Economics and GHG Emissions”, Sustainability,(9)3,2017, 1-15.
[32] European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) Greenpeace, “Solar Generation”, Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Empowering the World, 6, 2011, 79 -86.
[33] Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) National Control Centre, Osogbo, 2015.
[34] Transmission Company of Nigeria (TCN), online at www.scribd.com/doc/35230315/Niger [Accessed: 12:05: 2019]
[35] U. O. Emmanuel, N. N. Samuel and K. I Gerald, “Electric Power Transmission Enhancement: A Case of Nigerian Electric Power Grid”, American Journal of Electrical And Electronic Engineering, (.4)1, 2016, 33-39.
[36] Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission (NERC), Regulations on Feed-in Tariff for Renewable Energy Sourced Electricity in Nigeria.
[37] C. Javier, P. Santiago, and S. P. Felix, Analytical Calculation of Photovoltaic Systems Maximum PowerPoint (MPP) Based on the Operation Point”, Journal of Applied Sciences, (7) 9, 2017, 1-15.
[38] A. O. Ekwue, “Technical Note: on the Correctness of Load Loss Factor”, Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH), (34)3, 2015, 546 – 547.
[39] A. O. Ekwue, “Integration of solar photovoltaic (PV) to LV Distribution Network: A Case Study’, Int. J. Renewable Energy Technology, (5)3, 2014, 217–228.
[40] S. Mathew, Fundamentals, “Resource Analysis and Economics”, Wind Energy ( Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, 2006) 209 – 235.
[41] S. Riccardo, S. Filippo, T. Salvatore, M. T. Anna, and T. Riccardo, “Post Feed-in Scheme Photovoltaic System Feasibility Evaluation in Italy: Sicilian Case Studies”, Energies, 7, 2004, 7147-7165.
[42] S. M. Najmulhoque, D. Barun Kumar and A. B. Mohd Rafique, “Evaluation of Energy Payback and CO2 Emission of Solar Home Systems Bangladesh” Science Direct Procedia Engineering, 90, 2014, 675 – 679.

Keywords
Distributed generation, economic, irradiation, net present value, solar