Estimation of Water Balance in Iraq using Meteorological Data

  IJETT-book-cover  International Journal of Recent Engineering Science (IJRES)          
© 2019 by IJRES Journal
Volume-6 Issue-5
Year of Publication : 2019
Authors : Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani


MLA Style: Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani "Estimation of Water Balance in Iraq using Meteorological Data" International Journal of Recent Engineering Science 6.5(2019):7-12. 

APA Style: Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani, Estimation of Water Balance in Iraq using Meteorological Data. International Journal of Recent Engineering Science, 6(5),7-12.

Water balance techniques are a means of a solution of important theoretical and practical hydrological problems. The water balance equation for any natural area or water body indicates the relative values of inflow, outflow, and change in water storage for the area or water body. Estimating water balance in Iraq, depending on meteorological data and the Thornthwaite method, was the aim of this research. The results of corrected potential Evapotranspiration (PEc) obtained from applying the Thornthwaite formula were compared with annual and monthly rainfall in (32) meteorological stations to estimate actual Evapotranspiration (AE). The results showed that the annual summation of rainfall increased from the south-west towards north-east. According to the increasing ratio of rainfall due to the impact of the Mediterranean climate condition on Iraq. Actual Evapotranspiration depends directly on water excess during calculating water balance. The water surplus contour map indicates increased values towards the north-east direction of Iraq, where water surplus depends directly on both rainfall and actual Evapotranspiration.

[1] Subedi and J. L. Chávez, Crop Evapotranspiration (ET) Estimation Models: A Review and Discussion of the Applicability and Limitations of ET Methods. Journal of Agriculture Science, 7,6, 2015.
[2] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Calculating of Groundwater Recharge using Meteorological Water Balance and Water level Fluctuation in Khan Al-Baghdadi Area. Iraq Journal Science, 59(1B),2018,349-359.
[3] UNESCO. Scientific framework of world water balance. Technical papers in hydrology, No.7. Paris. P: 27. 1971.
[4] A. A. Sokolov and T. G. Chapman, Methods for water balance computations, an international guide for research and practice. UNESCO press. Paris. 127 p. 1974.
[5] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Hyrogeological System of Debagah Basin in North of Iraq, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Baghdad, Iraq. 2003.
[6] P.A Domemico and F.W. Schwartz, Physical and chemical hydrogeology. John Wiely and Sons. Inc., New York. 506 p. 1998.
[7] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Study of Morphometric properties and Water Balance using Thornthwaite method in Khanaqin Basin, East of Iraq. Journal of University of Babylon, Engineering Sciences, 26(3), 2018, 165-175.
[8] S.S. Abdullah, M. Malek, A. Mustapha and A. Aryanfar, Hybrid of Artificial Neural Network-Genetic Algorithm for Prediction of Reference Evapotranspiration (ET) in Arid and Semiarid Regions. Journal of Agricultural Science, 6,(3), 2014, 191.
[9] R.G. Allen, L.S. Pereira, D. Raes and M. Smith, Crop evapotranspiration-Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. FAO. Rome. 1998
[10] A. Henderson, The Future of the World's Climate. Henderson-Sellers, A. and McGuffie, K. (eds), Second Edition. Elsevier, Boston, pp 531- 621. 2012.
[11] H. Vangelis, D. Tigkas and G. Tsakiris, The effect of PET method on reconnaissance drought index (RDI) calculation. J Arid Environ, 88, 2013, 130–140.
[12] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Rainfall Returns Periods in Iraq. Journal of University of Babylon, Engineering Sciences. 27 (2), 2019, 1-9.
[13] A. Al-Shamma, E.S. Taqa and M.A.H. Saeed, Water Balance of North Erbil Basin. Iraqi Journal of Science, 48 (1), 2007, 124-134.
[14] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Derivation Mathematical Equations for Future Calculation of Potential Evapotranspiration in Iraq, a Review of Application of Thornthwaite Evapotranspiration. Iraqi Journal of Science. 60(5), 2019, 1037-1048.
[15] H.I.Z. Al-Sudani, Temperature – Potential Evapotranspiration Relationship in Iraq Using Thornthwaite Method. Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences, 27(1), 2019,16-25.
[16] Iraqi meteorological Organization and Seismology. Meteorological data of (32) meteorological station for different periods". Ministry of Transportation. Baghdad. Iraq. 2015.
[17] C.W. Thornthwaite, An Approach toward a Relation Classification of Climate. Geographical Review. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 32 (55), 1948, 3-30.

Water Balance, Meteorological data, Thornthwaite Method, Iraq.